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Understanding Common Reporting Standards

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OUR COMMON GOALS

In December 2016, the U.A.E Central Bank mandated that all banks in the country implement 'Common Reporting Standards', an initiative taken by the OECD in which financial institutions around the world come together with a common goal to combat tax evasion and thereby protect the integrity of tax systems.

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REQUIREMENTS

CRS require that as a bank, we determine whether you (individual or business) are a “tax resident” in any country other than the U.A.E. This will be based on information we already have or may be required to additionally obtain from you. The impact of CRS will depend on factors such as:

  1. The type of account or product you hold
  2. Where you bank with us
  3. Where you live or operate as a business

 

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GET TO KNOW

If required, you will be contacted directly to ensure all the necessary information is in place to correctly identify your tax residency. It is important to note that if you have multiple relationships with us, you may receive more than one request for information. Should you have questions regarding your tax residency, please refer to the rules governing tax residence published by each national tax authority. If you have any specific questions regarding your tax residency, please contact a professional tax adviser.

To find out more, click here

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Active Non–Financial Entity

Under the CRS, an Active Entity (typically a business that is a trading entity) is known as an Active Non-Financial Entity (NFE). You must meet any of the following criteria to be an Active NFE:

  1. Less than 50% of the NFE’s gross income for the preceding calendar year or other appropriate reporting period is passive income and less than 50% of the assets held by the NFE during the preceding calendar year or other appropriate reporting period are assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income;
  2. The stock of the NFE is regularly traded on an established securities market or the NFE is a Related Entity of an Entity the stock of which is regularly traded on an established securities market;
  3. The NFE is a Governmental Entity, an International Organization, a Central Bank, or an Entity wholly owned by one or more of the foregoing;
  4. Substantially all of the activities of the NFE consist of holding (in whole or in part) the outstanding stock of, or providing financing and services to, one or more subsidiaries that engage in trades or businesses other than the business of a Financial Institution (FI), except that an Entity does not qualify for this status if the Entity functions (or holds itself out) as an investment fund, such as a private equity fund, venture capital fund, leveraged buyout fund, or any investment vehicle whose purpose is to acquire or fund companies and then hold interests in those companies as capital assets for investment purposes;
  5. The NFE is not yet operating a business and has no prior operating history, but is investing capital into assets with the intent to operate a business other than that of a FI, provided that the NFE does not qualify for this exception after the date that is 24 months after the date of the initial organization of the NFE;
  6. The NFE was not an FI in the past five years, and is in the process of liquidating its assets or is reorganizing with the intent to continue or recommence operations in a business other than that of an FI;
  7. The NFE primarily engages in financing and hedging transactions with, or for, Related Entities that are not FIs, and does not provide financing or hedging services to any Entity that is not a Related Entity, provided that the group of any such Related Entities is primarily engaged in a business other than that of an FI; or
  8. The NFE meets all of the following requirements:
    • It is established and operated in its country of residence exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, artistic, cultural, athletic, or educational purposes; or it is established and operated in its country of residence and it is a professional organization, business league, chamber of commerce, labor organization, agricultural or horticultural
    • It is exempt from income tax in its country of residence;
    • It has no shareholders or members who have a proprietary or beneficial interest in its income or assets;
    • The applicable laws of the NFE’s country of residence or the NFE’s formation documents do not permit any income or assets of the NFE to be distributed to, or applied for the benefit of, a private person or non-charitable Entity other than pursuant to the conduct of the NFE’s charitable activities, or as payment of reasonable compensation for services rendered, or as payment representing the fair market value of property which the NFE has purchased; and
    • The applicable laws of the NFE’s country of residence or the NFE’s formation documents require that, upon the NFE’s liquidation or dissolution, all of its assets be distributed to a Governmental Entity or other non-profit organization, or escheat to the government of the NFE’s country of residence or any political subdivision thereof.

 

Automatic Exchange of Information

The Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) is a response by national governments to combat tax evasion more widely and effectively. It refers to the process of tax authorities in CRS-participating countries automatically exchanging data on tax residency with other participating countries.

 

Controlling Person

For an Entity that is a legal person, the term Controlling Person means the natural person(s) who exercises a controlling interest (‘control’) over the Entity.
Determining control will depend on the legal structure of the Entity. Control over an Entity may be exercised through direct or indirect ownership or if no such person(s) exists, then by any natural person(s) that otherwise exercises control over the management of the Entity (for example, the senior managing official of the company).
For companies, Controlling Persons include any natural person that holds directly or indirectly more than 25 percent of the shares or voting rights of an Entity as a beneficial owner. In some countries this percentage may be a lower figure.
In the case of a partnership and similar arrangements, Controlling Person means, consistent with “beneficial owner” in anti-Money Laundering regulations, any natural person who exercises control through direct or indirect ownership of the capital or profits of the partnership, voting rights in the partnership, or who otherwise exercises control over the management of the partnership or similar arrangement.
In the case of a trust (and Entities equivalent to trusts), the term Controlling Persons means the settlor(s), the trustee(s), the protector(s) (if any), the beneficiary(ies) or class(es) of beneficiaries, and any other natural person(s) exercising ultimate effective control over the trust.

 

CRS

The Common Reporting Standard (CRS) is a worldwide information-gathering and reporting requirement for financial institutions, to help fight against tax evasion and protect the integrity of tax systems.
Under the CRS, we are required to determine where you are “tax resident” (this will usually be where you are liable to pay income or corporate taxes) and give national tax authorities information on those customers that are tax resident/paying taxes outside the country where they bank. They may then share this information with the tax authority of the country (or countries) where you are tax resident.

 

Entity

This is defined under the CRS as a legal person or a legal arrangement, such as a corporation, organization, partnership, trust or foundation. An entity will therefore include any customer that holds a business account, product or service with DIB.

 

Individual

A customer that holds a personal account or product with DIB.

 

OECD

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a group of 34 member countries plus the European Commission and Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa as permanent guests.

 

Passive Non-Financial Entity

Under the CRS, a Passive NFE means any NFE that is not an Active NFE.
An NFE will be deemed a Passive NFE if more than 50% of the NFE’s gross income for the preceding calendar year or appropriate reporting period is passive income or the assets held by the NFE during the same period are assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income.
For the purpose of the CRS, passive income* would generally be considered to include the portion of gross income that consists of:

  1. Dividends;
  2. Interest;
  3. Income equivalent to interest;
  4. Rents and royalties, other than rents and royalties derived in the active conduct of a business conducted, at least in part, by employees of the NFE;
  5. Annuities;
  6. The excess of gains over losses from the sale or exchange of Financial Assets that gives rise to passive income described above;
  7. The excess of gains over losses from transactions (including futures, forwards, options, and similar transactions) in any Financial Assets;
  8. The excess of foreign currency gains over foreign currency losses;
  9. Net income from swaps;
  10. Amounts received under Cash Value Insurance Contracts.

*Passive income will not include, in the case of an NFE that regularly acts as a dealer in Financial Assets, any income from any transaction entered into in the ordinary course of such dealer’s business as such a dealer.

 

Related Entity

An Entity is a “Related Entity” of another Entity if either Entity controls the other Entity, or the two Entities are under common control. For this purpose control includes direct or indirect ownership of more than 50 per cent of the vote and value in an Entity.

 

Self-certification forms

A completed self-certification form may be used to confirm your tax residency status under the CRS. There are three types of self-certification form: Individuals, Entities and Controlling Persons. For some types of Entity, as well as collecting the Entity self-certification, we may also need to collect a self-certification from the Controlling Persons. This is explained on the Entities and Controlling Persons self-certification forms.

 

Senior Managing Official

In the absence of a natural person(s) that exercises control of the Entity through ownership interests, the Senior Managing Official can be identified as the Controlling Person(s) of the Entity. The Senior Managing Official of a company is the person who exercises control over the management of the entity.

 

Tax residency

Your tax residency is the country where you are resident/registered for tax purposes. Each country has its own rules for defining tax residence. For more information on tax residence, please consult your tax adviser, or the tax residency pages of the OECD CRS portal.
http://www.oecd.org/tax/automatic-exchange/common-reporting-standard/

 

TIN (including functional equivalent)

The term ‘TIN’ means Taxpayer Identification Number or a functional equivalent in the absence of a TIN. A TIN is a unique combination of letters or numbers assigned by a jurisdiction to an individual or an Entity and used to identify the individual or entity for the purposes of administering the tax laws of such jurisdiction. Further details of acceptable TINs can be found at the following link: http://www.oecd.org/tax/transparency/automaticexchangeofinformation.htm

 

Account Holder (Individual)

The term ‘Account Holder’ means the person listed or identified as the holder of a Financial Account. A person, other than a Financial Institution, holding a Financial Account for the benefit of another person as an agent, a custodian, a nominee, a signatory, an investment advisor, an intermediary, or as a legal guardian, is not treated as the Account Holder. In these circumstances that other person is the Account Holder. For example in the case of a parent / child relationship where the parent is acting as a legal guardian, the child is regarded as the Account Holder. With respect to a jointly held account, each joint holder is treated as an Account Holder.

 

Account Holder (Entity)

The “Account Holder” is the person listed or identified as the holder of a Financial Account by the Financial Institution that maintains the account. This is regardless of whether such person is a flow-through Entity. Thus, for example, if a trust or an estate is listed as the holder or owner of a Financial Account, the trust or estate is the Account Holder, rather than the trustee or the trust’s owners or beneficiaries. Similarly, if a partnership is listed as the holder or owner of a Financial Account, the partnership is the Account Holder, rather than the partners in the partnership. A person, other than a Financial Institution, holding a Financial Account for the benefit or account of another person as agent, custodian, nominee, signatory, investment advisor, or intermediary, is not treated as holding the account, and such other person is treated as holding the account.

 

Financial Account

A Financial Account is an account maintained by a Financial Institution and includes: Depository Accounts; Custodial Accounts; Equity and debt interest in certain Investment Entities; Cash Value Insurance Contracts; and Annuity Contracts.

 

Participating Jurisdiction

A Participating Jurisdiction means a jurisdiction with which an agreement is in place pursuant to which it will provide the information required on the automatic exchange of financial account information set out in the Common Reporting Standard.

 

Reportable Account

The term ‘Reportable Account’ means an account held by one or more Reportable Persons or by a Passive NFE with one or more Controlling Persons that is a Reportable Person.

 

Reportable Jurisdiction

A Reportable Jurisdiction is a jurisdiction with which an obligation to provide financial account information is in place.

 

Reportable Person

A Reportable Person is defined as an individual who is tax resident in a Reportable Jurisdiction under the tax laws of that jurisdiction. Dual resident individuals may rely on the tiebreaker rules contained in tax conventions (if applicable) to solve cases of double residence for purposes of determining their residence for tax purposes.

 

Custodial Institution

This is any Entity that holds, as a substantial portion of its business, Financial Assets for the account of others. This is where the Entity’s gross income attributable to the holding of Financial Assets and related financial services equals or exceeds 20% of the Entity’s gross income during the shorter of: (1) the three-year period that ends on 31 December (or the final day of a non-calendar year accounting period) prior to the year in which the determination is being made; or (2) the period during which the Entity has been in existence.

 

Depository Institution

This is any Entity that accepts deposits in the ordinary course of banking or similar business.

 

Investment Entity

Investment Entity includes two types of Entities:

  1. An Entity that primarily conducts as a business one or more of the following activities or operations for or on behalf of a customer:
    • Trading in money market instruments (cheques, bills, certificates of deposit, derivatives, etc.); foreign exchange; exchange, interest rate and index instruments; transferable securities; or commodity futures trading;
    • Individual and collective portfolio management; or
    • Otherwise investing, administering, or managing Financial Assets or money on behalf of other persons.
    Such activities or operations do not include rendering non-binding investment advice to a customer.
  2. The second type of Investment Entity (Investment Entity managed by another Financial Institution) is any Entity the gross income of which is primarily attributable to investing, reinvesting, or trading in Financial Assets where the Entity is managed by another Entity that is a Depository Institution, a Custodial Institution, a Specified Insurance Company, or the first type of Investment Entity.

 

Financial Institution

This is a “Custodial Institution”, a “Depository Institution”, an “Investment Entity”, or a “Specified Insurance Company”. Please see the relevant domestic guidance and the CRS for further classification definitions that apply to Financial Institutions.

 

Investment Entity located in a Non-Participating Jurisdiction and managed by another Financial Institution

The term “Investment Entity located in a Non-Participating Jurisdiction and managed by another Financial Institution” means any Entity the gross income of which is primarily attributable to investing, reinvesting, or trading in Financial Assets if the Entity is (1) managed by a Financial Institution and (2) not a Participating Jurisdiction Financial Institution.

 

Investment Entity managed by another Financial Institution

An Entity is “managed by” another Entity if the managing Entity performs, either directly or through another service provider on behalf of the managed Entity, any of the activities or operations described in clause (1) above in the definition of ‘Investment Entity’.

An Entity only manages another Entity if it has discretionary authority to manage the other Entity’s assets (either in whole or part). Where an Entity is managed by a mix of Financial Institutions, NFEs or individuals, the Entity is considered to be managed by another Entity that is a Depository Institution, a Custodial Institution, a Specified Insurance Company, or the first type of Investment Entity, if any of the managing Entities is such another Entity.

 

Non-Reporting Financial Institution

This is any Financial Institution that is:

    1. A Governmental Entity, International Organization or Central Bank, other than with respect to a payment that is derived from an obligation held in connection with a commercial financial activity of a type engaged in by a Specified Insurance Company, Custodial Institution, or Depository Institution;
    2. A Broad Participation Retirement Fund; a Narrow Participation Retirement Fund; a Pension Fund of a Governmental Entity, International Organization or Central Bank; or a Qualified Credit Card Issuer;
    3. An Exempt Collective Investment Vehicle; or
    4. A Trustee-Documented Trust: a trust where the trustee of the trust is a Reporting Financial Institution and reports all information required to be reported with respect to all Reportable Accounts of the trust;
    5. Any other defined in a countries domestic law as a Non-Reporting Financial Institution.

 

Participating Jurisdiction Financial Institution

    This is;

    1. any Financial Institution that is tax resident in a Participating Jurisdiction, but excludes any branch of that Financial Institution that is located outside of that jurisdiction, and
    2. any branch of a Financial Institution that is not tax resident in a Participating Jurisdiction, if that branch is located in such Participating Jurisdiction.

 

Reportable Jurisdiction Person

This is an Entity that is tax resident in a Reportable Jurisdiction(s) under the tax laws of such jurisdiction(s) - by reference to local laws in the country where the Entity is established, incorporated or managed. An Entity such as a partnership, limited liability partnership or similar legal arrangement that has no residence for tax purposes shall be treated as resident in the jurisdiction in which its place of effective management is situated. As such if an Entity certifies that it has no residence for tax purposes it should complete the form stating the address of its principal office.

 

Resident for tax purposes

Generally, an Entity will be resident for tax purposes in a jurisdiction if, under the laws of that jurisdiction (including tax conventions), it pays or should be paying tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or incorporation, or any other criterion of a similar nature, and not only from sources in that jurisdiction. Dual resident Entities may rely on the tiebreaker rules contained in tax conventions (if applicable) to solve cases of double residence for determining their residence for tax purposes. An Entity such as a partnership, limited liability partnership or similar legal arrangement that has no residence for tax purposes shall be treated as resident in the jurisdiction in which its place of effective management is situated. A trust is treated as resident where one or more of its trustees is resident. For additional information on tax residence, please talk to your tax adviser.

 

Specified Insurance Company

This is any Entity that is an insurance company (or the holding company of an insurance company) that issues, or is obligated to make payments with respect to, a Cash Value Insurance Contract or an Annuity Contract.

Any Questions?

What is CRS?
CRS (Common Reporting Standard) is a global standard under OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) for automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes. CRS is an information-gathering and reporting requirement for financial institutions in participating countries, to help fight against tax evasion and protect the integrity of tax systems. Based on the CRS, financial institutions in participating countries collect and the report certain information about their account holder’s tax residency status and account details to the local Central Banks or tax authorities. The disclosed information may then be exchanged with other participating countries’ tax authorities.
When does the CRS take effect in the UAE?
The CRS took effect in the UAE on January 1, 2017, with the first reporting taking place in June 2018.
Why do I have to provide my tax residency status?
Under the CRS, financial institutions in the UAE have to obtain and report certain information relating to their account holder’s tax statuses to the Central Bank of UAE. Therefore, DIB will ask you to declare your tax residency status at the time of account opening, if you have not provided earlier.
Why do I need to complete the CRS Self Certification form?
DIB is required to collect and report information about your tax residency in order to promote transparency and fight offshore tax evasion. DIB will collect the necessary tax related information from you on the CRS Self-Certification form, and if you are tax resident outside the UAE, we may disclose this along with information relating to your account to the Central Bank of UAE. The disclosed information may then be shared with the participating countries’ tax authorities according to your disclosed tax residence/ies.
What is the difference between country of residence and tax residence?
Usually, your country of residence is where you are domiciled, i.e. where you live with the intent to make it a fixed and permanent home. While an individual usually will be resident for tax purposes in a jurisdiction if, under the laws of that jurisdiction (including tax conventions), the person pays or should be paying tax therein by reason of his or her domicile, residence or any other criterion of a similar nature, and not only from sources in that jurisdiction. Dual resident individuals may rely on the tiebreaker rules contained in tax conventions (if applicable) to solve cases of double residence for determining their residence for tax purposes. If you are in any doubt, you should seek advice from a suitably qualified professional.
In which case will my data be reported to the Central Bank of UAE?
If you are a tax resident outside of the UAE in any of the participating countries, information regarding your financial account(s) maintained by DIB may be reported to the Central Bank of UAE.
What information will be reported to the Central Bank of UAE if I am a personal account holder?

The following data may be reported to the Central Bank of UAE:

  1. Name Residential address
  2. Date of birth
  3. Place of birth
  4. Taxpayer identification number(s) (TIN) or equivalent tax number
  5. Account number
  6. Account balance or value (as at a defined date)
  7. Income (interest, dividends, other income) earned on the account
  8. Gross proceeds from any sale or redemption of an asset
What information will be reported to the Central Bank of UAE for entity customers and for controlling persons?
For entity customers the following will be reported to the Central Bank of UAE:NameAddress Taxpayer identification number(s) (TIN) or equivalent tax numberAccount number Account balance or value (as at a defined date)Income (interest, dividends, other income) earned on the accountGross proceeds from any sale or redemption of an assetFor Controlling Persons: Name of the Controlling Person Address of the Controlling Person Date of birthPlace of birth Taxpayer identification number(s) (TIN) or equivalent tax numberType of the Controlling Person
How often is DIB required to report to the Central Bank of UAE?
The reporting to the Central Bank of UAE occurs on an annual basis.
What happens if I am a tax resident in more than one jurisdiction?
You should list all jurisdictions in which you are treated as tax resident and provide the tax identification number (TIN) for each one.
What if I do not provide the information related to my tax status?
Based on the Central Bank of UAE regulations on CRS, it is mandatory for DIB to identify your tax residency status and collect the relevant information. Therefore, you must provide DIB with the necessary information as part of your obligations with DIB. If you fail to comply, DIB will refuse to open an account for you or if you already maintain the account then DIB will be liable under the regulations to report you to the Central Bank of UAE based on the information in DIB’s record.
What should I do if I cannot determine my tax residency?
Contact your tax advisor or the local tax authority. DIB does not provide tax advice.
Do I need to provide any supporting documents?
Apart from your updated trade license, passport, visa and Emirates ID copies, no supporting document is necessary, but there might be certain instances when evidence concerning your tax status may be required.
What is my obligation if my information changes?
You must notify DIB within a reasonable time if there is any change in circumstances regarding your tax status by providing an updated self-certification declaration.
Does the CRS replace the US FATCA Tax law?
No, CRS and FATCA are two separate laws. For CRS, you need to fill a self-certification form whereas FATCA requires the completion of the W9, W8BEN and W8BENE forms.